category : Biodiversity and nature preservation
The ocean is a very large area with salt water. 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by oceans and they are home to over 700,000 different species of animals. There are 5 oceans in the world: Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.
What are the resources we get from the ocean?
We live on a big blue planet. There is nothing that the ocean has not been involved in securing. All life on Earth depends on the health of the oceans.
The ocean is full of plants that help produce oxygen. The ocean also acts as a huge carbon sink. This helps limit the greenhouse effect that causes global warming.
The earliest human beings built their communities near water sources. Rivers flowing into the oceans provide water for drinking, cooking, cooking, cleaning – and fun for swimming.
Transport and delivery
For most of human history, the oceans have been a transportation network for humans and industry. This has not changed in the era of cars, trains and airplanes: today 90% of products are transported by sea. Many people take advantage of shipping lines and ferries to travel or even sail the oceans on yachts or cruises for recreation and sports.
About 900 billion kilograms of fish and mussels are caught every year. For centuries – and to this day – people have been fishing with low intensity with a fishing rod and rod, catching only what they need. However, as global demand for fish increases, more dangerous fisheries are emerging. Sometimes this involves dropping underwater bombs or using large nets that also catch animals such as dolphins; boats can cause fatal injuries to sea turtles and whales.
The world’s oceans remain largely a mystery. We understand more about the surface of the moon and some planets in our solar system than we do about the bottom of our oceans! We are yet to discover species of plants and animals that have properties that have enormous potential for disease control.
The oceans are essential to the success of wind farms, as well as others such as hydropower and tidal energy.
Coral reef – animal and plant kingdom
The coral reef habitat is one of the most important habitats on earth. These are underwater structures built by small marine animals.
There are three different types of coral reefs. These are peripheral reefs, barrier reefs and atolls. Peripheral reefs lie close to the shore, while barrier reefs are farther from the sea. They got their name because they often function as a barrier to stronger sea currents. Sometimes atolls can be confused with islands because they are large. They are known for their beautiful shapes and colours and often attract divers and tourists who want to swim among them and observe life there.
One of the most interesting reefs is the Great Barrier Reef. It includes 900 smaller reefs and covers an area of 3,900 kilometers and over 500 islands.
Threats to coral reefs
Oxidation of the ocean
The first threat to coral reefs is the oxidation of the ocean. When polluted and after global warming, seawater becomes more acidic. This is how it dissolves the coral shells. This makes the reef more fragile and less able to protect the species that live there.
One well-known and chilling effect of climate change is coral bleaching as a result of rising water temperatures.
Higher temperatures cause coral polyps to reject small algae that help them produce food. This makes the coral colony white, as algae provide the colour of most hard corals. Without algae, coral polyps have no food and therefore die soon after.
What happens on land can also affect coral reefs. Swelling, wastewater threatens coral reefs. They can get sick and interfere with their oxygen supply, damaging the reef.
Another result of human intervention is invasive species. If there are no natural predators, they can upset the balance of the natural ecosystem.