category : Biodiversity and nature preservation
Plant species: herbaceous plants, shrubs, trees
Hundreds of thousands of different species of plants grow on Earth. Some plants are so small that people hardly see them. Others are trees that grow as tall as skyscrapers.
Most plants have a few things in common. They need sun, water and air to grow. They are unable to move. All green plants use the energy of the sun, water and gas called carbon dioxide to make their own food. This process is called photosynthesis.
Plants grow almost everywhere on Earth. Most plants grow in the soil. They receive the necessary water and nutrients from the soil.
All plants belong to one of three main groups: herbaceous plants, shrubs or trees. Herbaceous plants have soft stems. Shrubs and trees have tree trunks that are hardy. All plants have leaves, flowers and fruits.
Conditions for the existence of plants are water, soil, air, heat, light.
What we get from plants are: oxygen, various materials and products.
How photosynthesis works?
The word photosynthesis can be separated to form two smaller words:
“Photo”, which means light, “synthesis”, which means assembly. Plants need food, but they don’t have to wait for people or animals to provide it. Most plants can prepare their own food when they need it. This is done with the help of light and the process is called photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis takes place in the leaves of plants. Oxygen is released from the leaves into the atmosphere. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide are used to form glucose or plant food.
The most common trees on the Balkan Peninsula are:
Conifers: pine, fir, spruce, fir.
Deciduous: juniper, hornbeam, birch, hazel, elm, beech, chestnut, oak.
The most common shrubs in Bulgaria are: wild locust, Balkan yellow, dwarf, alder, ivy, elderberry, blackberry, raspberry.
The most common herbaceous plants are: primrose, crocus, edelweiss, Pirin poppy. These species are more than 4,000 in number.
Currently, there are about 15 species of trees protected by the Biodiversity Act. Some of them are juniper pine, yew, maple, oak, horse chestnut, Bulgarian pear, willow and others.
The tallest and oldest tree in Bulgaria
The tallest tree in Bulgaria so far is the spruce in the Parangalitsa reserve in the Rila Mountains, 46 meters high.
The oldest tree on which age has been measured is the Summer Oak in the village of Granit, known as the Granite Oak, which is over 1600 years old.
Importance of trees and plants
It is difficult to assess the importance of trees and plants in general. They process carbon dioxide and create the oxygen so necessary for our breathing. Forests are home to most animal species. They are a place we love and need to learn to respect.