category : Biodiversity and nature preservation
Reserves in Bulgaria – Pirin, Srebarna Lake
National Park Pirin
Pirin National Park was established in 1962. in order to preserve its huge biodiversity and to preserve the natural formations on its territory. The park is located on an area of 403 km3 and borders the municipalities of Bansko, Kresna, Sandanski, Gotse Delchev, Razlog, Simitli and Strumyani. Within its borders are six parks and three reserves – Bayuvi Dupki – Djindjiritsa, Yulen and Tisza.
What makes the reserve unique?
Rare species of trees grow in the protected area of the Bayuvi Dupki reserve – white and black pine, hazel and beech, fir and spruce. In the highest points are forests of black and white fir. This is the only reserve on whose territory some of the oldest black fir trees in Bulgaria – the 1300-year-old Baikusheva fir. There are specimens of white fir that are more than 1000 years old in Bayuvi Dupki. Here we can see some plants such as: Pirin devesil, Pirin poppy, yellow cinquefoil, blue crocus, alpine poppy, white and red carnations, forget-me-nots, enchantress, edelweiss and many others. Of the animals – there are bears, wild goats, deer, goldfinches, wild cats, squirrels, squirrels. Of the birds can be observed – bald eagles, Egyptian vultures, capercaillies, hawks, woodpeckers and others.
On the territory of the Yulen reserve we can observe forests of white fir, spruce, dwarf pine, white pine, and fir. Another 700 higher species of plants grow on its territory, 50 of which are included in the Red Book of Bulgaria. In addition to these tree species, here we can see unique plant species such as black pine, mountain peony, golden chamomile, sedge, elephant octopus and many others.
Among the representatives of mammals are: bear, deer, wolf, chamois. The most remarkable representatives of the bird kingdom are the woodpecker, the capercaillie, the titmouse, the woodpecker, and the Balkan partridge. The lakes are full of Balkan trout, and vipers can be found on the rocks.
The Srebarna Reserve is located near the village of Srebarna, 2 km south of the Danube River and close to the town of Silistra. It covers the lake and its surroundings. The reserve is located on the main migration route (road) of migratory birds between Europe and Africa, called Via Pontica. It was declared a reserve in 1948. It has an area of 600 hectares. One of the legends about how the lake got its name is about Khan Srebrist, who died in these places in an unequal battle with the Pechenegs. Another legend says that a boat full of silver was buried near the shores of the lake. The third and most plausible legend says that the name comes from the fairy-tale picture observed in the evening at full moon, when the moon with its reflection creates the illusion of molten silver.
There are reeds and other water-loving plants in the lake. There are 67 species of plants and some of them are endangered.
The animal world is very diverse: there are 39 species of mammals, 21 species of reptiles and over 40 species of fish – pike, caracuda, redfin, otter, crayfish, tortoise and water rat.
The reserve is best known for its birds: 179 species – Dalmatian pelican, cormorant, herons, fallow deer, mute swan, greylag goose, ducks, reed warbler, titmouse and many others.
In 1977 Srebarna was declared a biosphere reserve on the UNESCO list, and in 1983. is included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and Natural Landmarks.
Reserves in Serbia
Djerdap National Park – Iron Gates
Djerdap is a national park in Serbia. It stretches along the right bank of the Danube and has an area of 63,787 hectares.
For about 100km, the gorge crosses almost all of Europe, securing the borders between Serbia and Romania. Sometimes the steep cliffs reach a height of 500 meters and are quite impressive.
The park is located in a wooded area with over 1100 species of plants. Of the animal species found – bears, lynx, wolves, owls, black storks and others. Across the river, on the other bank is the Iron Gates Nature Park (Romania), which includes the Iron Gate Gorge.